Recent ENP graduate Beth Pavlicek studied how the brain effects decisions during her PhD. She contributed to an investigation led by Stefano Palminteri of the roles of the anterior insula and dorsal striatum in punishment-based avoidance learning. This study revealed that the anterior insula may contribute to learning the loss-predictive cues, while the dorsal striatum may facilitate choosing between cues in order to avoid the worse outcome. Check out the article:
Palminteri S, Justo D, Jauffret C, Pavlicek B, Dauta A, Delmaire C, Czernecki V, Karachi C, Capelle L, Durr A, Pessiglione M. Critical roles for anterior insula and dorsal striatum in punishment-based avoidance learning. Neuron. 6 December 2012. 76(5):998-1009.