Retinal information processing : pharmacology and pathologies

Leader

Research center

17 rue Moreau
75012 Paris
José-Alain Sahel

Institution

Inserm
Université Pierre et Marie Curie
CNRS

Laboratory

UMRS 968 - UMR 7210 - UM 80
Labex Lifesenses

Keywords

Vision
Retina
therapy
rehabilitation
blind
Available to host a PhD student

Publications

Hébert C, Cottance M, Degardin J, Scorsone E, Rousseau L, Lissorgues G, Bergonzo P, Picaud S. Monitoring the evolution of boron doped porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant by OCT and in vivo impedance spectroscopy. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2016 Dec 1;69:77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.06.032. Epub 2016 Jun 10.

Froger N, Moutsimilli L, Cadetti L, Jammoul F, Wang QP, Fan Y, Gaucher D, Rosolen SG, Neveux N, Cynober L, Sahel JA, Picaud S. Taurine: the comeback of a neutraceutical in the prevention of retinal degenerations. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2014 Jul;41:44-63. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2014.03.001. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Rosolen SG, Neveux N, Sahel J A, Picaud S. Froger N IntEvaluation of the taurine concentrations in dog plasma and aqueous humour: a pilot study. Adv Exp Med Biol. (2013) 775: 145-54.

Linderholm P, Guyomard JL, Djilas M, Salzmann J, Simonutti M, Sahel JA, Safran AB, Renaud P, Picaud S. Long-term in-vivo impedance changes of subretinal microelectrodes implanted in dystrophic P23H rats. International Journal of Artificial Organs (2013) DOI:10.5301/ijao.5000213.

Amel Bendali, Lucas H. Hess, Max Seifert, Valerie Forster, Anne-Fleur Stephan, Jose A. Garrido, Serge Picaud. Purified Neurons can Survive on Peptide-Free Graphene Layers. Adv. Health. Mater. (2013) 0.1002/adhm.201200347.

Lorach H., Benosman R., Marre O., Ieng S.H., Sahel J., Picaud S. Artificial retina : the multichannel processing of the mammalian retina achieved with a neuromorphic asynchronous light acquisition device. Journal of Neural Engineering (2012) 9(6):066004.

Froger N, Cadetti L, Lorach H, Martins J, Bemelmans A, Dubus E, Dégardin J, Pain D, Forster V, Chicaud L, Ivkovic I, Simonutti M, Fouquet S, Jammoul F, Léveillard T, Benosman R, Sahel J A, Picaud S. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration. Plos One (2012) 9(6):066004.

Fields of research

Neurophysiology / systems neuroscience

Research Theme

Our lab studies the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying retinal information processing. For instance, considering contrast enhancement at the photoreceptor terminals, which remains a matter of controversy, we have revisited the GABA hypothesis. Although this hypothesis first proposed in lower vertebrates was declined in the mammalian retina, we have demonstrated the presence of an unconventional GABAergic neurone and GABA receptor expression in cone photoreceptors. We also investigate how physiological mechanisms can interfere into pathological processes like the irreversible visual field constriction produced in epileptic patients by a blocker of the GABA degrading enzyme. We found that this first line drug for the treatment of infantile spasms or West syndrome, cause taurine deficiency leading to retinal phototoxicity. Recent studies have focussed on brain machine interfaces with artificial biological neuronal networks in vitro and retinal prostheses in vivo aiming at restoring vision in blind patients.



Lire le Dossier thématique "Rétine artificielle" réalisé en collaboration avec Serge Picaud et José-Alain Sahel, Institut de la vision (unité Inserm 968, Paris) et co-fondateurs de Pixium Vision – mai 2016. Certaines personnes qui ont perdu la vue suite à la dégénérescence de leurs cellules photoréceptrices peuvent désormais bénéficier d’une rétine artificielle. Fixé sur ou sous la rétine, cet implant leur permet de percevoir à nouveau des signaux lumineux. Plusieurs systèmes sont en cours d’évaluation, et la recherche se poursuit pour améliorer leurs performances et la perception visuelle des patients. Lire la suite - Source: Inserm. 

 

Lab rotation

Decomposing the retinal circuit by population recording and single cell stimulation

Team leader: 

PICAUD Serge

Dates: 

September 18, 2017 - June 29, 2018

Application deadline: 

June 29, 2018

Period

~ Sept-Dec 2017

~ Jan-March 2018

~ April-June 2018

Project

The retina is an ideal system to understand how neuronal networks are able to process neuronal information. The signal flows from photoreceptors through a few layers of neurons to the retinal ganglion cells, which send spikes down the optic nerve to the brain. We have combined several state of the art tools to measure, and stimulate, several intermediate cells of the retinal network, while recording a large fraction of the output layer. For this we have combined several techniques: multi-electrode array (MEA) recordings allowing simultaneous recording of large ensembles of output cells; Two-photon stimulation and imaging at very high spatial resolution, optogenetic tools allowing cell-specific activation. We combine these techniques to precisely stimulate the retinal network and simultaneously measure the impact of these stimulations on the retinal output, and use modeling to understand how the retinal network proces information. 

Contact

Institut de la Vision - Physiology department - 17, rue Moreau 75012 Paris - +33 1 53 46 25 32 - Olivier.marre@gmail.com

Supervisor: 

MARRE Olivier