Neurological and psychiatric diseases
Le cerveau est composé de nombreux types de neurones communiquant entre eux via descontacts spécifiques, les synapses. Chaque neurone peut être contacté par plusieurs typesde neurones et à son tour peut envoyer des connections sur différentes autres populationsneuronales : la structure de ces réseaux peut être comparée à celle des réseauxélectriques. Comment la formation de ces réseaux précis est contrôlée reste encore malcompris. Toute perturbation de leur formation peut entraîner des maladies neurodévelopmentales du type autisme.
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a major challenge in Neurosciences. This brain region controls behavior adaptation and highercognitive functions that are needed for complex social interaction, abstract thinking, reasoning, planning or creativity.
Our second aim is to assess the crucial question whether different ALS genes lead to motor neuron death and deleteriousmicroglia/macrophage responses by gain or loss of function mechanisms. A major focus will be on newly discovered and theremaining unknown ALS genes with approaches including novel mouse modeling and gene discovery.Our project relies on the combined capacities of 4 PIs and 2 supporting clinicians forming this ALS team.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a public health problem in our societies. It is associated with the intracerebral accumulation of amyloid plaques and tau lesions. Our team tackles this disease by focusing on three different points.
The modern abundance of energy-rich foods combined with a shift to more sedentary lifestyles has led to a thermodynamic imbalance, and consequently, excessive caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure are the main causes for the prevalence of obesity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the obesity worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980. In 2008, 1.5 billion adults, 20 and older, were overweight.
Our research program aims at understanding how the brain controls locomotor activity, and how aging or neurodegenerative pathologies, such as Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, alter this function and in general brain functioning. We try to identify neuronal networks controlling locomotor activity and circadian mechanisms that modulate them in health and disease. Our approach combines genetics methods, brain imaging and behavioral assays.
We study neurodevelopmental disorders with the ultimate aim to identify key molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in establishing neuronal circuits underlying social cognition and behavior. We currently focus on the study of transcription factors whose mutations lead to speech and language disorder and to microcephaly and intellectual disability.
Our team investigates the relationships between spinal motoneurons and the muscle fibers they are targeting, and how thisrelationship is altered in the context of a human degenerative disease of motoneurons (ALS). To do so, we have recently pioneeredtwo new preparations that allow studying the electrophysiological properties of identified spinal motoneurons.
Our team "Pathophysiology and therapeutic targets of the blood-brain barrier" was created in 2014 with a membership of Inserm inthe new five-year plan. It comes from the team of the former Inserm U705 (ex Director Prof. JM Scherrmann) which studied for morethan 20 years mechanisms of drug exchange in brain barriers. actually, we study the variability factors of two essential functions ofthe BBB, the maintenance of brain homeostasis towards endogenous compounds and the control of brain exposure to drugs and toxicsubstances.
The "Biomarkers of relapse and therapeutic response in addictions and mood disorders" team develops research on mood disordersand addiction both at the clinical and fundamental level (ranked A, AERES 2013, creation 01/01/2014).The objective is to identifyclinical, biological, genetic or imaging-based markers of the response to psychotropic drugs (in the context of drug abuse or during thetreatment for mood disorders or pain management). These markers will allow us to better predict the response (therapeutic and sideeffects) in order to improve the therapeutic monitoring of patients.